__Labour Turnover__(i) Separation Rate Method = Number of separations ina period ÷ Average number of workers in the period x 100

(ii) Replacement Method = Number of replacements in a period ÷ Average number of workers in the period x 100

(iii) Flux Rate Method = No. Of separations + No. Of replacements ÷ Average number of workers in the period x 100

No. Of separations + No. Of replacements ÷ 2 / Average of workers in the period x 100

(iv) Equivalent Annual Turnover Rate = Turnover rate x 365 ÷ No. Of days in the relevant period x 100

(v) Valuation of closing stock in units = cost of production ÷ units produced x No of closing stock units.

__Remuneration and Incentives__1. Halsay wier scheme = Time taken x howely rate + ( Time saved x Howely rate x 30% )

2. Barth’s variable sharing plan = Howely rate √ standard time x Actual time

3. Bedeaux’s point premium system = Time taken x ( Howely rate x 75/100 x points saved x Basuc rate per hour ÷ 60 )

**Incentive Plans:**

4. Halsey Plan: Total Earnings = Time taken x Hourly rate + ( Time saved x Rate x 50%)

5. Rowan Plan: Total Earnings = Time taken x Hourly rate + Bonus

Bonus = Time saved ÷ standard time x time taken x Hourly rate.

6. Barth Scheme = Hourly rate x √ Standard hours x hours worked

**Obsorbtion of overhead:**

1. Overhead rate = overhead Expenses ÷ Total quantum of base selected

2. Actual overhead rate = Actual overhead incurred during a period ÷ Actual quantum or value of the base selected

3. Blanket overhead rate = overhead cost of the entire factory ÷ Total quantum of the base selected

4. Preduemined overhead rate = Budgeted overhead Expenses for the period ÷ Budgeted base of the period

5. Treatment of over / under obsorption overhead supplementary rate = Amount of over / under obsorption of overhead ÷ Total of base

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**Piece Rate System:**

1. Straight Piece Rate System ( ordinary piece rate ) = No. Of units produced x Rate per piece

2.

__Taylor’s differencial piece rate system__: –(a) Output below standard output :-

Piece rate = No of units produced x (straight piece rate x 80% )

(b) Output above standard output :-

Piece Rate = No of units produced x ( straight piece rate x 120% )

3.

__Merricks multiple or Differential price__:-(a) Output below 83% of standard output :-

Piece rate = ordinary piece rate

(b) Output between 83% to 100% of standard output :-

Piece rate = No of units produced x ( rate per piece x 110% )

(c) Output above 100% of standard :-

Piece rate = No of units x ( rate per piece x 120% )

4.

__Gantt’s Task__:-(a) Earnings = Standard time x Hourly rate – ( below 100% per )

(b) Earnings = ( standard time x Hourly rate) + 20% of ( standard time x Hourly rate) ( performance at 100% )

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