Basic knowledge of Indian Power Sector


1. Ministry of Power – Website

2. The Ministry of Power started functioning independently with effect from
2nd July, 1992. Earlier it was known as the Ministry of Energy sources.

3. Power – Ministry of State (Independent Charge) – R.K.SINGH

4. Electricity is a concurrent subject at
“Article 246 – Seventh schedule – List III- Entry 38” of the Constitution of India.

5. The Ministry of Power is primarily responsible for the development of electrical energy in the country.

6. The Ministry of Power is responsible for the Administration of the Electricity Act, 2003, the Energy Conservation Act , 2001 and to undertake such amendments to these Acts, as may be necessary from time to time, in conformity with the Government’s policy objectives.

7. The Ministry is concerned with perspective planning, policy formulation, processing of projects for investment decision, monitoring of the implementation of power projects, training and manpower development and the administration and enactment of legislation in regard to thermal, hydro power generation, transmission and distribution.

8. Electricity Act 2003 has been enacted and came into force from 15.06.2003.
The objective is to introduce competition, protect consumer’s interests and provide power for all.

9. The Act provides for National Electricity Policy, Rural Electrification, Open access in transmission, phased open access in distribution, mandatory SERCs, license free generation and distribution, power trading, mandatory metering and stringent penalties for theft of electricity.

10. Electricity act 2003 is a comprehensive legislation replacing
Electricity Act 1910,Electricity Supply Act 1948 and Electricity Regulatory Commission Act 1998.

11. The Electricity Act, 2003 has been amended on two occasions by the
Electricity (Amendment) Act, 2003 and the Electricity (Amendment) Act, 2007.
The aim is to push the sector onto a trajectory of sound commercial growth and to enable the States and the Centre to move in harmony and coordination.


The Overall generation (Including generation from grid connected renewable sources) in the
country has been increased from 1110.458 BU during the year 2014-15 to
1173.603 BU during the year 2015-16,
1241.689 BU during the year 2016-17 and
1306.614 BU during 2017-18.
The performance of Category wise generation during the year 2017-18 was as follows:-
Thermal Increased by 4.27 %
Hydro Reduced by 3.07 %
Nuclear Increased by 0.87 %
Bhutan Import Increased by 13.55 %
Renewables Increased by 23.48 %
Overall Growth rate recorded by 5.35 %

Power Sector at a Glance ALL INDIA :- (Data as on 31.06.2018)
There are three major pillars of power sector these are Generation, Transmission, and Distribution.
As far as generation is concerned it is mainly divided into three sectors these are
Central Sector, State Sector, and Private Sector.

Central Sector – 30.2%
State Sector – 24.6%
Private Sector – 45.2%

Power Generated by using following Fuel : Fuel % Fuel %
1 Total Thermal 64.8% 2 Hydro (Renewable) 13.2%
(a) Coal 57.3% 3 Nuclear 2%
(b) Gas 7.2% 4 RES* (MNRE) 20.1%
(c) Oil 0.2%

*RES (Renewable Energy Sources) include Small Hydro Project, Biomass Gasifier, Biomass Power, Urban & Industrial Waste Power, Solar and Wind Energy

Performance of Generation from Conventional Sources :

The electricity generation target of conventional sources for the year 2018-19 has been fixed as 1265 Billion Unit (BU).
i.e. growth of around 4.87% over actual conventional generation of 1206.306 BU for the previous year (2017-18).

1. The natural resources for electricity generation in India are unevenly dispersed and concentrated in a few pockets.

2. Hydro resources are located in the Himalayan foothills, North Eastern Region(NER).
Coal reserves are concentrated in Jharkhand, Odisha, West Bengal, Chhattisgarh, parts of Madhya Pradesh, whereas lignite is located in
Tamil Nadu and Gujarat.
Also lot of power station, generating from Gas and renewable energy sources like Solar, Wind etc. have been installed in various parts of country.

3. Powergrid Corporation of India Limited (POWERGRID), a Central Transmission Utilities (CTU), is responsible for planning inter-state transmission system (ISTS). Similarly there are State Transmission Utilities (STU) (namely State Transco/ SEBs) responsible for the development of Intra State Transmission System.

4. 13,820 circuit kilometres (ckm) of transmission lines have been commissioned during 2017-18 (April-November 2017). This is 59.9% of the annual target of 23,086 ckm fixed for 2017-18.

5. As on 30th November 2017, the total transmission capacity of the inter-regional links is 78,050 MW.

6. The transmission lines are operated in accordance with Regulations/standards of Central Electricity Authority (CEA) / Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC) / State Electricity Regulatory Commissions(SERC).However, in certain cases, the loading on transmission lines may have to be restricted keeping in view the voltage stability, angular stability, loop flows, load flow pattern and grid security. Power surplus States have been inter-alia, able to supply their surplus power to power deficit State Utilities across the country except for some congestion in supply of power to Southern Region.

7. Power Grid Corporation of India Limited (POWERGRID, the ‘Central Transmission Utility (CTU)’ of the country and a ‘Navratna’ Company operating under Ministry of Power, is engaged in power transmission business with the responsibility for planning, implementation, operation and maintenance of Inter-State Transmission System (ISTS).
POWERGRID is a listed Company, with 57.90% holding of Government of India and balance by Institutional Investors & public.

8. As a part of Government of India plan to connect 250,000 Gram Panchayats (GP) in the Country, POWERGRID one of the implementing agencies for Bharat Net project and has been entrusted with the task of development and maintenance of the National Optical Fiber Network in states, namely Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand and Odisha.

9. Further, POWERGRID is playing a significant role in carrying forward the distribution reforms through undertaking Deendayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana (DDUGJY) and Integrated Power Development Scheme (IPDS) works on behalf of the Govt. of India in the country.

POWER DISTRIBUTION & Various Schemes :

Distribution is the most important link in the entire power sector value chain.
As the only interface between utilities and consumers, it is the cash register
for the entire sector.

Under the Indian Constitution, power is a Concurrent subject and the responsibility for distribution and supply of power to rural and urban consumers rests with the states.

Pradhan Mantri Sahaj Bijli Har Ghar Yojana (Saubhagya) Ujwal Discoms Assurance Yojana (UDAY ) Integrated Power development Scheme
(IPDS) Deendayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana (DDUGJY)

Important Points :

1. URJA MITRA – App by Ministry of power
“Monitoring of power Availability and sending power cut information through SMS”
2. 30.01 Crore LED bulbs distributed under UJALA Scheme
3. Vision of the Prime Minister – Power for ALL (24X7)
It is a Joint venture of Government of India and States & UT
Objective : States ready to ensure 24×7 power for all from 01.04.2019
4. India’s Rank on World bank’s Ease of getting Electricity Ranking
In 2018 – 29th Rank
In 2014 – 111 Rank
5. India 1st time became net exporter of Electricity.

Facts about NTPC :

• NTPC is India’s largest energy conglomerate with roots planted way back in 1975 to accelerate power development in India.
• NTPC became a Maharatna company in May 2010, one of the only four companies to be awarded this status.
• NTPC was ranked 400th in the ‘2016, Forbes Global 2000’ ranking of the World’s biggest companies.
• The total installed capacity of the company is 53,651 MW (including JVs)
• Presently, Government of India is holding in NTPC has reduced to 69.74%.
• NTPC has been ranked as “6th Best Company to work for in India” among the Public Sector Undertakings and Large Enterprises for the year 2014, by the Great Places to Work Institute, India Chapter in collaboration with The Economic Times.

Subsidaries of NTPC :
• NTPC Electric Supply Company Ltd. (NESCL)
• NTPC Vidyut Vyapar Nigam Ltd. (NVVN)
• Kanti Bijlee Utpadan Nigam Limited
• Bharatiya Rail Bijlee Company Limited (BRBCL)
• Patratu Vidyut Utpadan Nigam Limited (PVUNL)