Ratio Analysis – Analyze the business

1)      Profitability Ratio:-

G/P ratio =  Gross Profit  *100
Net Sales

2)      Operating ratio:-

Cost of goods sold + operating exps *100
Net sales

a)      Cost of goods sold  =  Opening stock + Purchase + Direct exps + Manufacturing   Exps – Closing stock or Sales – G/P.

b)      Operating exps = Administrative + Selling & distribution exps.

3)      Expenses Ratio:-

a)  Material consumed                               :-     Material Consumed *100
Net sales

b)  Conversion cost                                   :-     Labour exps + Manufaturing Exps * 100
Net sales

c)  Administrative Expenses Ratio            :-   Administrative Expenses Ratio * 100
Net sales

d)  Selling & Distribution Expenses          :-   Selling & Distribution Expenses *100
Net sales

e)  Operating Profit Ratio                          :-    Operating Profit *100
Net sales

OP=GP+Operating Income-Operating Exps

f)  Net Profit Ratio                                     :-    Net Profit *100
Net sales


4)      Return on Capital Employed             :-                       N/P                  * 100
Capital Employed

a) Net Profit :- N/P after depreciation before interest on fixed liabilities dividend on    shares and taxation.

b) Capital Employed :- Fixed Assets + Current Assets – Current Liabilities


Equity Shares + Preference Share + Undistributed Profit +    Reserves & Surplus + Fixed Liabilities – Fictitious Assets

5)     Return on Share Holders                      :-                         N/P                 *100
Shareholders Funds

a)      Net profit :-  N/P after payment Taxes, Interest on long term liabilities & Preference   dividend.

b)      Share holder Fund :- Equity Share Capital + Preference Share Capital + Capital Reserve +Revenue Reserve.

6)            Return on Total Assets                         :-           N/P After Tax *100
Total Assets

7)      Debt Service Ratio                                :-           N/P Before Interest & Tax
Interest on fixed debenture

8)      Earning per Share                                :-           Net Income – Preference Dividend
Number of Equity Shares

9)     Price Earning Ratio                                :-           Market Price Per Equity Share
Earning per Share

10)    Payout Ratio                                  :-           Dividend per Equity Share
Earning per share

11)   Dividend Yield Ratio                           :-            Dividend Per Share  *100
Market Price Share

12)   Turn Over Ratio  :-

a) Capital Turn Over Ratio                      :-                    Sales
Capital Employed (Shareholder fund +long term Liabilities

b) Fixed Assets Turnover Ratio:-            :-                   Sales           *100
Net fixed Assets

c) Working Capital Turnover Ratio         :-                   Sales  * 100

d) Total Assets Turnover Ratio                :-               Net Sales *100
Total Assets

e) Stock Turnover Ratio                                         :-          Cost of Goods Sold
Average Stock (Op+Clo stock)

f) Debtors / Receivable Turnover Ratio                   :-       Net Credit Sales
Average Drs (op Dr/Bill Receivable + clo Dr’s/ Bills Payable)
Collection Period = 365/DTR

g) Creditor’s Turnover Ratio                  :-     Average Credit Purchase
(Creditors + B/P)

h) Average Payable                                 :-     Month/Days in a year
Creditors Turnover Ratio

13)  Financial Ratio

i) Current Ratio                                      :-       Current Assets
Current Liabilities

j) Liquid Ratio                                        :-    Quick Assets
Current Liabilities

k) Absolute Liquid Ratio        :-   Cash in Hand & Bank +Short Term Securities
Current Liabilities

14) Inventory Turnover Ratio         :-    Inventory/Working Capital
Working Capial= Current Assets- Current Liaballities

15) Fixed Assets Ratio                      :-    Fixed Assets
Capital Employed

16) CA to Fixed Assets                     :-    CA/FA

17) Debt to Equity Ratio                  :-   Long Term Debts
Shareholders Funds + Long Term Debts

a) Proprietary Ratio                      :-  Shareholder Funds
Total Assets

18) Capital Gearing Ratio                :- Fixed Interest Bearing Securities
Equity Share Capital

19) Leverages Ratio

a) Operating Leverage                    :-  Marginal Contribution
Earning Before Interest & Tax (EBIT)
MC= Sales-Variable Cost     EBIT=Marginal Contribution- Fixed Cost

b) Financial Leverage                    :-    EBIT
Earning Before Tax (EBT)

EBT= EBIT- Interest

C) Combined Leverage            :-               Operating Leverage * Financial Leverage


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